Why Industrial Revolution occurred in England first ?
The main advantage England had was the beginning of Agricultural Revolution. It helped England in many ways. It generated agricultural surplus, provided raw materials and the labour force from the rural areas. It also created the demand for industrial goods. Thus, in Britain the agricultural revolution prepared the material basis for industrial revolution.
England had large number of colonies which not only supplied the raw materials to the industries but also served the purpose of markets.
The vast amount of capital which England had accumulated due to the profit of her growing trade enabled England to make huge investments on machinery and buildings.
The financial institutions such as central banks, stock markets and joint stock companies encouraged people to take risks with investment, trade and new technologies.
The geographical location of England was also a major factor. Being cut off from the main land of Europe, England remained protected from the wars and the disturbances in Europe. The socio-political conditions in England therefore remained quite stable.
The location of the coal and iron ore mines close to each other helped England by providing the resources for constructing and operations of the industries.
England possessed a far better infrastructure of transport and communication than any other country of Europe which greatly helped in the industrial revolution.
The stable political situation in Britain after the glorious revolution of 1688 and the British society’s greater receptiveness towards change can also be said to be the factors favouring the industrial revolution in England.
The government policies in England towards property and business encouraged innovation. The government created patent laws that allowed the inventors to benefit financially from the intellectual property of their inventions.
The British government also encouraged global trade by expanding the navy to protect the trade routes and by granting the monopolies or other financial incentives so that they would explore the world to find new resources.
The presence of an entrepreneurial class in the country with a great capacity of an individual businessman to take risk also greatly contribute for industrial revolution.
The British scientists and engineers had a very practical approach towards research and development. They made inventions keeping in view the need of the time.
They concentrated mainly on those inventions of sciences which had practical and immediate utility.